The Fall of Old Bulgaria


The present publication is based on a research on the chronology of the events
from Bulgarian and Byzantine history. It was undertaken under the influence
of Fomenko's chronological hypothesis and the facts presented in his books
which support this hypothesis.

After an initial comparison of the personal data about two Bulgarian rulers
and analyses and reflections, the definitions of overall conceptions about new
chronological schemes for the events of Bulgarian and Byzantine history are

In the first two chapters basic data about Bulgarian Tsars Ivan Vladislav (XI
century) and Ivan Shishman (XIV century) are summarized and the problems
arising from their similarity are formulated. It is shown that their special
significance is due to the fact that the direction to this particular pair of
Tsars is not accidental but is a result of preliminary prognosis received from
Fomenko combining astronomical and statistical methods.

In the third chapter the most concrete difference in the historical pictures
which the historical tradition relates to the reigns of Ivan Vladislav and
Ivan Shishman - the Turkish occupation on the Balkan Peninsula in XIVth
century is considered.

The fourth and the fifth chapters are devoted to the general introduction to
the chronological problems. Historical data are given about the establishment
of the chronological scheme of the events of human history, accepted from The
Council of Trent in XVIth century (the so-called Scaliger's chronology --
after the name of its founder). A review is made of the most significant and
crucial efforts for the refutation of this scheme. A description is also
given of the ideas of modern mathematical-statistical methods for the
exploration of historical texts. Some astronomical datings are cited which
contradict Scaliger's chronology.

The sixth chapter outlines the problems caused by the large differences
between the orthographic rules in the past. The scales of the meaning
deformations of the ancient texts direct the attention to the mechanisms which
lead to the production of the different forms -- often quite different in
appearance -- of one and the same name. Some typical regularities are
explored and examples are considered about formulating and confirming
hypotheses for a common origin of names.

The seventh chapter portrays some basic similarities in the general pictures
of Bulgarian history in the X-XIth century and XIVth century.

In the eighth chapter several historical puzzles are described -- paradoxes
which in Scaliger's version of the history look like anomaly. One of them is,
for examples, the descriptions of how gunpowder was used in very early times.

The ninth chapter is devoted to ``Prussians'' and ``Pechenegs'' who are
mentioned in old chronicles and documents.

In the tenth chapter the issue about the anachronisms in history is discussed
and the reasons for why they arise. An example is given for how possibly a
wrong chronological scheme was established. Also described here are the
anachronisms which arose by the Scaliger's chronological scheme in Michael
Psell's {\em Chronology}. A classification of the anachronisms in the
contemporary Scaliger's version of the history is offered.

Chapter eleven is devoted to the analysis and comparison of the biographies of
two Byzantine emperors, namely Basil II and John V, and the latter's biography
is combined with the war victories of the Byzantine ally, Bajazet. The
parameters of the similarity lead us to the hypothesis that these two
biographies belong to one and the same real person.

In chapter twelve a comparison is made of the basic facts from the reign of
two dynasties of Bulgarian rulers -- from Simeon to Ivan Vladislav in the
IX-XIth century and from Shishman to Ivan Shishman in the XIVth century. A
hypothesis is offered that the histories of these two dynasties are in fact
different descriptions of one and the same epoch and one and actually the same
real dynasty.

In the thirteenth chapter brief data are presented about the first century of
the Ottoman Dynasty whereas chapter fourteen contains a comparison of basic
facts from the reign of the two of the most representative Byzantine
dynasties: Macedonian dynasty from Basil I `the Macedonian' to Basil II
`Bulgaroctonus' (IX-XIth century) and the Palaeologus Dynasty from Michael
VIII Palaeologus to John V Palaeologus (XIII-XIVth century). An analysis of
these facts leads to the following hypothesis-conception about the
chronological scheme of the events from the Byzantine history:

The official version for the period from about 860 to 1250 covers almost the
whole real documented history of Byzantium. Descriptions of events from the
same period constitute almost all other parts of the formal Byzantine history.
The period 860-1250 itself should be re-dated in such a way that the accepted
dates in it should be increased by about 200 years. All ``captures of
Constantinople'' should be separated, attentively reconsidered and replaced to
their original places in the time. Almost all documented ``ancient'' events
happened during the same period.

This hypothesis can be considered as an attempt to make some details of
Fomenko's hypothesis more precise and more concrete.

Chapter fifteen presents details from the general panorama of the events about
conquest of Old Bulgaria which supplements the fragments known as ``events
from the beginning of the XIth century'' and ``events from the end of the
XIVth century''.

In chapters sixteen and seventeen special attention is paid to the terms
``Saracens'', ``Hellenes'', ``Macedonians'' and ``Pelasgians''. Here a
hypothesis-conception is satted about the chronology of the basic events in
Bulgarian history:

Probably besides the fragmentary data about ``the Pelasgians'' in ``the
antique'' Hellene-Greek sources, the oldest documented events in Bulgarian
history are about the time near the conversion to Christianity (usually dated
at 865 A.D.) and the reign of Tsar Boris I.

Here follows the Shishman Dynasty:

The son of Tsar Ivan Vladislav Shishman, Prince (knjaz) Fruszin, goes to
Hungary where he becomes a vassal of emperor Sigismund and starts attempts to
take back the Bulgarian kingdom.

Isperich follows immediately after Tsar Vladislav (Slav).

In the several Byzantine versions, the Isperich's coming is described as an

-- of Goths in IVth century;

-- of Bulgarians in VIIth century;

-- of Pechenegs in XIth century.

In each of them a different part of the truth is reflected: Prince (knjaz
(kanas)) Isperich comes into Bulgaria with Bulgarians and with foreign help.

After Isperich comes the era of Tervel.

There follow seventy ``knjaz'' years, i.e. ``kanas'' or , as it is accepted
from most authors, the ``khans'' period of the Bulgarian history.

After the revolt of Asen and Peter, after Kalojan, Boril and Ivan Asen II,
called Alexander, Bulgaria gradually declines, the Tartar pressure becomes
stronger and the ``Tartar'' or ``Turkish'' yoke begins.